Friday, May 22, 2020

Effects of Video Games on Childrens Behavior - 1744 Words

An analysis about the effects of video games on children behavior Effect of Video Games on Children’s Behavior Introduction Social scientists have been examining the effect that video games have on behavior. From the introduction of video games in the 1980s, there have been numerous research studies to this effect (Andersen Taylor, 2008). The issue has become even more significant in the modern context because these video games have become bloodier and more realistic than ever before. Even though boys play these games more than girls in America, the consumption of video games has generally been high. Carey (2013) indicates that 32% of these gamers are below the age of 18. Therefore, it would be crucial to evaluate the effects†¦show more content†¦Frustrating nonviolent video games indirectly induce aggressive cognitions by linking thoughts and feelings. Such games also increase arousal but it is violent games that directly cause the emergence of aggressive thoughts, stimulating long term development of structures associated with aggressive knowledge. Carey (2013) gives perfect examples of video games causing aggressive behaviors in children. According to the reporter, the young men responsible for opening fire at Columbine High School and even those that opened fire at the Auorora, Colo movie theatre as was in the news were all found to be video gamers who were deemed to be acting out of some digital fantasy. The exposure to computer games gave the idea for them to go on rampage or at least aroused the urge for such acts. It would therefore be appreciated that computer games, also a form of video games, caused an arousal of aggressive behavior in the perpetrators. This makes it easy to appreciate that video games, specifically those involving violence, trigger aggressive behaviors. On the other hand, video gaming promotes pro-social behavior and positive behavior. Avid gamers exhibit improved reflexes, healthier brains and better cognitive skills. It causes the regions of the brain in charge of memory function, strategic planning and spatial orientation to increase. Being a pervasive activity, it promotes numerous motor andShow MoreRelatedVideo Games And Its Effects On Children927 Words   |  4 PagesVideo games are a more interesting form of entertainment for the simple reason that players may become part of the game’s plot. Video games were invented for many years now. However, the current variety of games raised concerns about how they affect the children s behavior due to the fact that the games are becoming more sophisticated. Children spend most of their free time playing video games. Sometimes children refrain from completing important duties and dedicate all of their time playing videoRead MorePositive Effects Of Violent Video Games1161 Words à ‚  |  5 PagesViolent video games have been a popular pass time for American teenagers ever since the first ones were released. The most popular of these games are Grand Theft Auto, Call of Duty, Mortal Kombat, and Doom. It has become a popular belief that these games are directly linked to violent behaviors in our youth. Numerous scholars have set out to determine the validity of these assumptions through vast surveys and studies in America. All of these scholars share the belief that violent video games affectRead MoreThe Effects Of Violent Video Games On Children s Behavior1626 Words   |  7 PagesThe effect of violent video games on children’s behavior has been the major concern of numerous researchers over the last several decades. Indeed, a great number of researches conducted by psychologists show that regular exposure to violent video games has both long-term and short-term negative effects on a player’s behavior. Aggressiveness and lack of empathy are c onsidered to be two main outcomes of constant playing games with violent content. However, it should be noted that the content is notRead MoreThe Negative Effects of Video Games Essay1337 Words   |  6 PagesVideo games began in the late 1960s. It is highly interactive but also a distinct simulation of the real world and the world of thinking. In recent years, Video games have been gaining its popularity at an amazing rate and have developed into a common form of entertainment in peoples lives. According to a survey, the researcher found that in 1992, approximately ninety-two percent of U.S. kids between 2 and 17 years of age play video games, and their parents bought 225 million of them last year toRead MoreThe Effects Of Violent Video Games On Children Essay1670 Words   |  7 PagesMany parents in today’s society are adamant about their teenagers refraining from playing violent video games. Specifically, parents worry about their children playing mature-rated video gam es that feature blood, gore, vulgar language, use of drugs, and intense violence. Quite a few of these parents believe that their children can be heavily influenced by these brutal video games, which will in turn raise their teenagers to become violent, aggressive, and criminal minded individuals. In hindsightRead MoreVideo Game Technologys Negative Effects on the Next Generation893 Words   |  4 PagesVideo Game Technologys Negative Effects on the Next Generation Video Games made their first appearance in the 1970’s however did not develop popularity until the 1980’s. By the end of that decade, video games had become a preferred childhood leisure activity; psychologists urged many with the concerns of the ill effects of video games. â€Å" Even The military has long been aware of some of the side effects of video games†¦ Some of the best fighter pilots in the world grew up playing these gamesRead MoreVideo Game Effects On Childrens Development930 Words   |  4 PagesVIDEO GAME EFFECTS ON CHILDRENS DEVELOPMENT It is believed the average gamer usually ages 13 and up spends up to 6.3 hours a day playing video games. That is an alarming rate, which concerns both the public and scientist. Through out this paper three different articles will be analyzed and their view on the impact of video games on children’s and adolescents. The first article to be discussed is â€Å"Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and DepressionRead MoreVideo Games Violence664 Words   |  3 Pages104 August 11, 2013 Video Games and Violence Video games and violence have different effects on children according to the type of video games that is being watched It is important to understand the world of video games. All video games do not prevent violence in children. Parents should take into consideration in monitoring their child while choosing video games. Depending on the video game that is chosen, does not mean the child will result in violent behavior later on in life. ThereRead MoreViolent Video Games : Positive And Negative Effects On Children And Adolescents774 Words   |  4 Pagessystems, violent video games have become well-liked by children and adolescents. The playing of violent video games has always been a controversial topic, but in recent years it has become a heated debate. Whether the playing of these games desensitize the player or not. Video games have been around since the late 1970s, however violent video games were introduced in the 1990s. In recent years the violence in games have increased along with the enhanced graphics making the games more realistic. ViolentRead MoreThe Effects of Video Games on Children1610 Words   |  6 PagesMany participants also suggested that the games caused the children to have strong imaginations, while a few disagreed. 61.0% said that electronic games did not cause the children to lack good behavior. The survey also showed that electronic games do not cause the children to be skilled in terms of their self expression, and do not cause them visual stress. On the issue concerning obesity, the percentage of the respondents who said that electronic games caused children to be obese was equal to the

Friday, May 8, 2020

Laughter Is A Part Of The Envious Human Experience

Laughter is a part of the envious human experience we as beings have. It is undoubtedly one of the things that make living worthwhile. In fact, according to Matthew Hurley and his fellow associates, â€Å"a large portion, in any case, of people’s time is spent attempting to get each other to laugh† (Hurley, Dennett, and Adams Jr.). Laughing has a way of offering relaxation like nothing else does. It has the power to unconsciously change any situation into a good one just as soon as it starts. It definitely has the potential to take over you and there are millions of reasons to laugh. Every laugh is as unique as the individual displaying it, yet the possible benefits remain the same. The effects of laughter has been studied time and time again†¦show more content†¦Although it does not seem as credible, King Solomon, Plato, the ancient greek physicians, and others of great influence all took an interest in what seemed to be an obscure and preposterous idea in the years to come. Not to mention, studies and history both has proven that laughter has risen through mockery in the medical setting, in terms of health and prevention, more than enough times to grab the attention of the medical world permanently. Just as an apple a day will keep the doctor away, laughing for awhile will grant you more days with a smile. Laughter has the ability to give our immune system a much needed boost allowing it to continue fighting off infections and sickness. When we laugh, we send an ok signal that triggers an increase in disease fighting antibodies. This benefits immune function regulation cells, as well as, special cells with the task of seeking out and destroying viral and tumor cells. Neuropeptides and T cells that help fight off infections are also given a boost (Laughter is No Joke!). Laughter may even compare to a proper diet and exercise when it comes to keeping you healthy and disease free. That’s according to Dr. Lee Berk, who has spent nearly three decades studying the ways the aftershocks of a good laugh ripple through your brain and body (Heid). Have you ever been in pain

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Critically assess psychological theories of fascism. Free Essays

string(80) " that fascism is a psychology also entails that it has a psychology of its own\." Introduction According to the Oxford dictionary, Fascism is â€Å"an authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization. In general use extreme right-wing, authoritarian, or intolerant views or practices: this is yet another example of health fascism in action. The term Fascism was first used of the totalitarian right-wing nationalist regime of Mussolini in Italy (1922–43); the regimes of the Nazis in Germany and Franco in Spain. We will write a custom essay sample on Critically assess psychological theories of fascism. or any similar topic only for you Order Now Fascism tends to include a belief in the supremacy of one national or ethnic group, a contempt for democracy, an insistence on obedience to a powerful leader, and a strong demagogic approach†. Geoffrey Gorer (1935:199) noted in 1935: â€Å"Mr Wells thinks that he hates fascism; he is horror-struck as any liberal at its brutality, its barbarism, its philistinism, its illogicality and its narrow nationalism; but he puts all the blame on the last quality; if it was only international, it wouldn’t really be so bad†. It is clear from Gorer’s satire that even as early as 1935, to understand Fascism only as a negative thought process, was rejected and intellectuals started taking a kinder view of the movement (if it could be called thus?). Many started analysing and assessing its psychological theories, which, precisely, we will endeavour to do in the following essay. Though a critical assessment of these theories is expected, it would suffice to say that a positive view regarding Fascism at the onset will serve our purpose sufficiently, for the ideology has already been seen in a very bad light for the repercussions that it entailed and the miseries the wor ld had to face, in the light of a consolidated fascistic onslaught during the world war II. However, what we shall try and understand is the modern view that Fascistic tendencies have existed in all ages and in all humans universally, and that they found an explosive eruption during an unfortunate period and consequently a set of nations and people had to bear the brunt of being blamed for it. Universality of Fascist psychology So, this understanding of Fascism has now come a long way from the understanding of it as purely a political/mass movement. It was believed that the fascist party â€Å"introduced† fascism by force or by â€Å"political man oeuvre†. Contrary to this, Reich (1946:6) says that his medical experience with individuals from all kinds of social strata, races, nationalities and religions shows that â€Å"fascism† is the only politically organized expression of the average human character structure. Furthermore, it is a character structure which has nothing to do with race, nation or party but which is general and international. In this characterological sense, â€Å"fascism† is the basic emotional attitude of a man in authoritarian society, with its machine civilization and its mechanistic-mystical view of life. It is the mechanistic-mystical character of man in our times which creates fascist parties and not vice versa.† Fascism according to modern sociologists and psychologists, therefore, is not a purely reactionary movement; rather it is a mixture of rebellious emotions and reactionary social ideas. Now if this is true, then we cannot limit fascism specifically to a national character of Germany or Japan. If understood as a mixture of rebellious emotions and reactionary social ideas, it can be considered an international phenomenon, which permeates all organizations of human society in all nations. This means that there could be German, Italian, Spanish, Anglo-Saxon, Jewish and Arabian fascism (Riech, 1946:7) Basis of Fascistic psychology In its pure form, Fascism is the sum total of all irrational reactions of the average human character. Its origins are from the basic human tendencies. In Freudian explanation of the unconscious, the superficial layer in the nature of an average individual consists of that of conscientiousness and compassion. This superficial layer is similar to the biological core of human nature which too is co-operative and love based. But unfortunately, the superficial layer and the biological core are separated from each other by an intermediary layer which makes an individual cruel and sadistic. This intermediary layer is also known as â€Å"secondary impulses† or the unconscious, the anti-social structure in human structure which is the secondary result of the repression of primary biological impulses. As the contact between the â€Å"superficial layer† and the â€Å"biological core† is hard to obtain, what makes appearance is the perverse antisocial layer of the character (viii). Since irrational part of the human nature becomes prominent, both the other layers become subservient to the subversive, irrational tendencies, thus giving birth to prejudices. All prejudices show their origin from irrational part of human character whether they be race prejudices, national prejudices, ethnic prejudices or even, violence. Since Fascism is an emotional outburst whether it be against intolerable social conditions or depravity of any sort, it cannot be understood solely as a political phenomenon. It is a human phenomenon, a psychological-human- phenomena which cannot be tied to a boundary of nationality or race, but that which is universal, pervading the entire world, across all nationalities. And this is very clear from the history of the 20th century that no society has remained untouched from violence or irrational behaviour. In addition, irrational behaviour has played a vital role in human history and has achieved results which have not always been negative. If negative at all, we cannot make fascism harmless if we only look for it in Americans or Germans and we do not look for it in oneself and the social institutions which hatch him ev ery day (Reich:7). He argues (p.11) Hitlerism is not confined to Germany; it penetrates worker’s organizations and all kinds of liberal and democratic circles. Fascism is not a political party, but a specific Weltanschuung and a specific attitude toward people, toward love and work. So this proves that fascism more than being a political, subversive movement is a part of human psychology, which though a maligned movement has positive elements too. We shall now analyze Fascistic psychology in relation to its aesthetics, people, and work. Fascist aesthetics The fact that fascism is a psychology also entails that it has a psychology of its own. You read "Critically assess psychological theories of fascism." in category "Essay examples" This psychology of Fascism can be unearthed by understanding its aesthetics. Alan Tansman in (Fall 2008:144-153), analysing Japanese Fascist prose says, â€Å"†¦so captivated, we can still seek to trace the fascist moment by paying attention to form not primarily as embodiments of concepts that need elucidation (though they need that too), but rather as patterns of fascistic feelings that require feelings and unravelling. To trace the movement of fascist aesthetics within or across works would mean to follow it as a style of thought and representation, a style embodied in forms that leave their content behind and have in Henri Focillon’s (1992: 69) words, â€Å"a mobile life in a changing world†. Similarly Starbinski, (1989:116-21), praising another Japanese Yasuda’s work says, â€Å"The uncomfortable truth that Yasuda’s work was more than mere dangerous incitement, but was also powerful poetry, reminds us that even after we account for the political implications of his language there remains a formal quality that resists both being analysed critically and used politically† . The undeniable aesthetics of the Fascists was similarly emphasized by Tansman ( 2008:146) saying, â€Å"this allows us to see in action Kobayashi’s aesthetics, his evocation of â€Å" fascist moments† that attempted to shut down his reader’s critical intelligence and make self-abnegation, sacrifice and violence feel alluringly beautiful†. These examples of the readings of Japanese fascistic writers reveals that in spite of the fact that these writers were following an agenda, there still remains a subtle aesthetic beauty to be unearthed, understood and appreciated. And this again proves our initial assertion that tendencies of fascistic psychology have been present at all times as we find the same crisis with general literary men too. Fascistic psychology towards people Franklin D. Roosevelt said â€Å"The first truth is that the liberty of a democracy is not safe if the people tolerate the growth of private power to a point where it becomes stronger than their democratic state itself†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Henry Wallace too said â€Å"Still another danger is represented by those who, paying lip service to democracy and the common welfare, in their insatiable greed for money and the power which money gives, do not hesitate surreptitiously to evade the laws designed to safeguard the public from monopolistic extortion. Their final objective toward which all their deceit is directed is to capture political power so that, using the power of the state and the power of the market simultaneously, they may keep the common man in eternal subjection. They claim to be super-patriots, but they would destroy every liberty guaranteed by the Constitution. They are patriotic in time of war because it is to their interest to be so, but in time of peace they follow power and the dollar, wherever that may lead.† This sort of disillusionment caused by democracy sought being redressed by Fascism. Fascism became popular because it could do what liberalism and socialism did not succeed in doing. People have the need to belong to something greater, something superior than themselves. During crisis, the common people crave for unity and purpose of life and this in turn causes them to seek strength and guidance. Fascism provided that. Fascist psychology is the mentality of the subjugate â€Å"little man† who craves authority and he is both a ‘revolutionary’ who believes in rational rebellion against intolerable social conditions and a ‘radical’ for he believes in going to the root’. With this aspect in view, we could say that Fascism brought the inferiority instincts of the suppressed human to the core and created an emotional crisis in which the aspirations of common people started being given the due importance. Fascistic psychology towards work Fascism was a wave which brought extreme nationalism into vogue and had national pride and development at its core. The fascists in Italy and Germany wanted to see their countries as super-powers. Therefore the work ethics as outlined by Fascists was hard work. As Corradini tells us that for Italy to become an economic power â€Å"what was required was a marshalling, rationalization, and disciplining of human and natural resources to the tasks such a process would inevitably entail. Sacrifice and discipline were advocated as cardinal virtues for a nation of â€Å"producers† (1924:214-29). National pride in nation building was the mantra. And though being blatantly anti-modern, Mussolini piloting his own aircraft and tooling the Italian hills in his red sports car were public displays of this modernizing temper. The public policies of introducing the work ethic among civil servants, of insistence that the trains run on time, and plans for the development of a modern road syste m were the first overt indications of the character of Fascism’s modernizing disposition (Gregor, 1974:370-384). This work ethic of disciplining and progress according to Volpe (1928) gave a â€Å"massive impulse† to economic development. It was this work ethic in which pauperized masses of workers developed a sharp consciousness of their social situation, and also developed a will to eliminate their social misery. As Reich (1946:16) says, â€Å"It was exactly the pauperized masses who carried Fascism, the ultimate in political reaction, to power†. Here, it would not be impertinent to discuss the Fascistic attitude towards Modernization too. Though generally believed to be anti-modernistic in its approach, in hearkening back to pre-modern ideals and recreating a utopian â€Å"ancient Rome†, Fascism had undeniable modernistic tendencies. Turner (1972:548) conceives of modernization as being a complex process â€Å"involving industrialization, urbanization, secularization, and rationalization†. These elements which form the crux of what we try to ascertain as modern, though Modernity in itself is a vague and ambiguous term. However, if these markers enlisted by Turner form the base of being modern, then by that standard, fascists were near moderns. The principal constituents that entered into the coalition that became Fascism-Futurism, Italian Nationalism and Revolutionary National Syndicalism, seem to have all been clearly modernizing in intention (Gregor, 1974:373). All of this conjoined with the Fascist program s of urban redevelopment and expansion made Rome, Milan, Turin, and Genoa heavily populated modern industrial and commercial centres. This suggests that Fascism could hardly be conceived as a â€Å"utopian anti-modernism† in intention (Gregor, 1974:377). Maddison (1964) points out that in 1938, using 1913 as a base, the index of aggregate volume of output of Italy had risen to 153.8 compared more than favourably with that of France (109.4), and Germany (149.9). Again using 1913 as a base, the aggregate index for output per man in 1938 stood at 145.2 for Italy, 136.5 for France, 122.4 for Germany, 143.6 for United Kingdom, and 136.0 for the United States. This proves that the Fascist work culture had borne productive fruits and that in spite of the fact that they declared themselves to be anti-Modernism, Fascists were inclined totally towards industrialization, one of the most important and universally accepted tenets of the modernization process. This evaluation of the psychology of the Fascists on a human, personal and socio-economic level leads us to the belief that there was not much wrong with the aggressive policies pursued by the fascists. The problem arose with the execution of those policies and their repercussions thereafter. The only thing that the writer has tried to prove in this paper is that Fascistic tendencies were not something new that had descended suddenly upon the earth, but that they are latent forces locked in all individuals and ages as History has shown. Therefore, to label a set of countries or people as fascists is not warranted. We all are fascists in some way or the other and the need of the hour is to control this fascism in each of us for the furtherance of a more beneficial and humane human psychology. Bibliography: 1) Reich, Wilhelm. (1946:6) The mass psychology of Fascism: Orgone Institute Press 2) Tansman, Alan. Reading Fascism’s Form. Representations, vol 104. No1 (Fall2008), pp.144-153 3) Focillon, Henri. (1992:69) The life of Forms in Art :New York. 4) Starobinski, Jean.(1989:116-21) â€Å"The Critical Relation† in The Living Eye, trans.Arthur Gothammer, Cambridge, 1989. 5) Gorer, Geoffrey. (1935.199) Nobody Talks Politics: A Satire with an Appendix on our Political Intelligentsia : London. 6) Corradini, Enrico. (1924:214-29) â€Å"Nationalismo e socialism†, in Discorsi Politici, Florence. 7) Gregor, James. ( April,1974:370-384) Fascism and Modernization .World Politics, vol.26. No.3. 8) Volpe. (1928). Lo sviluppo storico del fascism , Rome. 9) Turner, Henry, Jr., ( July,1972:547-64) â€Å"Fascism and Modernization†, World Politics, XXIV 10) Maddison, Angus.(1964) Economic Growth in the West. New York. Appendices A, E, H, I. How to cite Critically assess psychological theories of fascism., Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

writing prompt 20 Essays (663 words) - Airport, Public Transport

Siddarth Luthra Characters: 3,610 Essay for December 9th Whether its planning an agenda for the rest of your day or planning out the construction for a building, planning is an important part of life. Planning helps people get something done on time and usually helps people stay on task. I am the designer of an airport and I need to decide how many runways my airport is supposed to contain. According to my supervisors the airport can handle a total of 50 takeoffs and landings at most. Additionally, during peak hours the number of landings is 50% more than the number of takeoffs and vice versa. Also, the runways must be long and a takeoff can occur from the middle of the run away, a landing can occur from the end to the middle of the runway. The time between consecutive landings must be six minutes and the time between consecutive takeoffs must be four minutes. To solve this "runway problem" I strived to find the number of takeoffs and landings that can occur at peak hours. Since, there can be 50 takeoffs and landings total at a peak hour and either the takeoffs or landings have to be 50% more than one or the other, I started to find combinations of numbers that add up to 50. When going through different combinations of numbers, I also looked for numbers that followed the rule of 50% more takeoffs than landings or vice versa. I then concluded that 20 landings or takeoffs and 30 landings and takeoffs was the right answer. This is because 30 is equal to 20 plus 50% of 20. Once I found how many landings and takeoffs can occur in a peak hour, I then decided to solve for how many runways are needed for 20 landings and 30 takeoffs. I realized the takeoffs and landings can occur on the same runway at the same time. Using the restraint given from my supervisors about there being six minutes in between every landing and four minutes between every takeoff, I multiplied the number of times between each event by the number of events I came up with in a peak hour. This was 20 landings times six minutes which equals 120 minutes of landings that had to be done in a peak hour. Also, I had to multiply 30 takeoffs with four minutes which also equals 120 minutes of takeoffs. Since an hour is 60 minutes and 120 minutes divided by two runways is 60 minutes, we need at least two runways. Since the number of runways was solved for 20 landings and 30 takeoffs per runway, the number of runways was also needed to be solved for the vice versa peak hours, where there would be 30 takeoffs and 20 landings. I multiplied the 30 landings with six minutes and got 180 minutes of landings in the hour minutes and the 20 takeoffs with four minutes and got 80 minutes of takeoffs in the hour. Since there are more landings there should be more runways for the landings which can also handle the 80 minutes of takeoffs easily. To get to 60 minutes I divided the 180 minutes of landings by three runways and got 60 minutes. Therefore, there should be three runways. I believe that my plan will work because there will be more than enough runways with peak hours when there will be 20 landings and 30 takeoffs per runway. Additionally, there will be enough runways for exactly 180 minutes ofclandings during peak hours with 30 landings and 20 takeoffs per runway. Assuming that usually there will be no technical difficulties this plan will most definitely work. This plan may also work with a few difficulties because there is extra time and runways for certain peak hours and certain events especially the takeoffs. During peak hours where there will be 20 landings and 30 takeoffs per runway there will be an extra runway for difficulties when problems occur.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Role of a Mental Health Nurse Essay Example

Role of a Mental Health Nurse Essay Example Role of a Mental Health Nurse Essay Role of a Mental Health Nurse Essay What is the role of a mental health nurse? As a student in mental health nurse, I can link my experience to the following articles. The first article is modeling and remodeling theory by Helen Erickson. According to the nursing theory by Helen Erickson (modeling and role-modeling theory), it has helped me in defining the career as well understanding what is required as a mental health nurse (Walsh, K. Vandenbosch T., Boehm S. 1989). From the theory, as a nurse, you should care and nurture every patient being aware that, respecting individual patients uniqueness is what keeps the career moving. Throughout my experience, I have been able to apply the aspects coined by Helen. The second article addresses the theory of health promotion model by Nola Pender which states that Health is a positive dynamic state rather than simply the absence of disease (Thibeault, R., Hebert, M. 2007). The understanding of these theories helped me in my experience to develop a personal understanding of the importance of being positive to the caree r, giving the best services for one primary goal which is recovery from a disorder or illness. Role of a mental health nurse practitioner Another article that I can link with my experience is a review of transcultural nursing theory by Madeliene Leininger. The understanding of this theory has greatly influenced my interaction with people during my experience. The understanding of this theory also helped me understand different cultures and applied the understanding to my experience (Gustafson D., 2005). The role of this paper was to illustrate my experiences as a mental health student nurse regarding the application of nursing theories. Also, from the understanding of these theories how I applied my understanding to be able to practice as a student nurse. The question I would like answered concerning the role of a medical health nurse is; how do they apply their experience to address the multidisciplinary treatment of mental disorders having in mind that mental health treatment involves different specialist? References Gustafson D., L. (2005). Transcultural nursing theory from a critical cultural perspective. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science. 28. Thibeault, R., Hebert, M. (2007). A congruent model for health promotion in occupational therapy. Occupational Therapy International. 4, 271-293. Walsh, K. Vandenbosch T., M, Boehm S. (2009). Modelling and role-modelling: integrating nursing theory into practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 14, 755-61

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

How Presidents Have Used Their Power To Pardon

How Presidents Have Used Their Power To Pardon The President derives the power of pardon from Article II, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution, which gives the president power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. A reprieve reduces the severity of a punishment, but the person remains guilty. A pardon removes both punishment and guilt, which is why pardons are more likely to be controversial. The process for obtaining a pardons begins with an application to the Department of Justice Office of the Pardon Attorney. The DOJ consults with other lawyers and judges for recommendations; the FBI runs a check on the applicant. After winnowing the applicants, the DOJ provides a list of recommendations to the office of the White House Counsel. Historical Pardons Historically, Presidents used the power to pardon to heal rifts in the national psyche. As President Bush said on 24 December 1982, When earlier wars have ended, Presidents have historically used their power to pardon to put bitterness behind us and look to the future. For example, George Washington pardoned leaders of the Whiskey Rebellion; James Madison pardoned Lafittes pirates after the War of 1812; Andrew Johnson pardoned Confederate soldiers after the Civil War; Harry Truman pardoned those who violated World War II Selective Service laws; and Jimmy Carter pardoned Vietnam War draft dodgers. The modern-day pardon, however, has taken a decidedly more political turn. And it may help its recipient find a job and regain the right to vote. Nixon In modern history, the most controversial pardon is probably the 1974 pardon of former President Richard Nixon, issued by President Gerald Ford. Ford assumed the presidency on 9 August 1974, the day after President Nixon resigned over Watergate, pending impeachment. Ford pardoned Nixon on 8 September 1974. Although Carter made a campaign issue of the Nixon pardon, in retrospect Fords action was brave (it was political suicide) and helped a divided nation begin to heal. Iran-Contra On 24 December 1992, President George Bush pardoned six Reagan administration officials involved in the Iran-Contra Affair: Elliott Abrams, Duane R. Clarridge, Alan Fiers, Clair George, National Security Adviser Robert C. Bud McFarlane and Secretary of Defense Caspar W. Weinberger. He compared their actions to those pardoned by Madison, Johnson, Truman and Carter: In many cases, the offenses pardoned by these Presidents were at least as serious as those I am pardoning today. Independent Counsel Lawrence E. Walsh was appointed in December 1986 to investigate the Iran/Contra affair; subsequently, Walsh brought charges against 14 people. Eleven were convicted; two convictions were overturned on appeal. Two were pardoned before trial, and one case was dismissed when the Bush Administration declined to declassify information necessary for trial.President Bush pardoned six Iran/Contra participants on 24 December 1992. Post-Trial Pardons Elliott Abrams   Pleaded guilty October 7, 1991, to two misdemeanor charges of withholding information from Congress about secret government efforts to support the Nicaraguan contra rebels during a ban on such aid. He was sentenced on November 15, 1991 to two years probation and 100 hours community service. The second President Bush appointed Abrams as Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director on the National Security Council for Near East and North African Affairs. Alan D. Fiers, Jr.   Pleaded guilty July 9, 1991, to two misdemeanor counts of withholding information from Congress about secret efforts to aid the Nicaraguan contras. He was sentenced on January 31, 1992 to one year probation and 100 hours community service. Pardoned. Clair E. George   Indicted September 6, 1991, on 10 counts of perjury, false statements and obstruction in connection with congressional and Grand Jury investigations. Georges trial on nine counts ended in a mistrial on August 26, 1992. Following a second trial on seven counts, George was found guilty December 9, 1992, of two felony charges of false statements and perjury before Congress. His sentencing hearing was February 18, 1993. Pardoned before sentencing occurred. Robert C. McFarlane   Pleaded guilty March 11, 1988, to four misdemeanor counts of withholding information from Congress. He was sentenced on March 3, 1989, to two years probation, $20,000 in fines and 200 hours community service. Pardoned. Pre-trial Pardons Duane R. Clarridge   Indicted November 26, 1991, on seven counts of perjury and false statements about a secret shipment of U.S. HAWK missiles to Iran. The maximum penalty for each count was five years in prison and $250,000 in fines. Trial date set for March 15, 1993. Pardoned. Caspar W. Weinberger   Indicted June 16, 1992, on five counts of obstruction, perjury and false statements in connection with congressional and Independent Counsel investigations of Iran/ contra. On September 29, the obstruction count was dismissed. On October 30, a second indictment was issued, charging one false statement count. The second indictment was dismissed December 11, leaving four counts remaining. The maximum penalty for each count was five years in prison and $250,000 in fines. Trial date set for January 5, 1993, trial date. Pardoned. Dismissal Joseph F. Fernandez   Indicted June 20, 1988 on five counts of conspiracy to defraud the United States, obstructing the inquiry of the Tower Commission and making false statements to government agencies. The case was dismissed in the District of Columbia for venue reasons on the motion of Independent Counsel. A four-count indictment was issued in the Eastern District of Virginia on April 24, 1989. The four-count case was dismissed November 24, 1989, after Attorney General Richard Thornburgh blocked the disclosure of classified information ruled relevant to the defense. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit in Richmond, Va., on September 6, 1990 upheld Judge Hiltons rulings under the Classified Information Procedures Act (CIPA). On October 12, 1990, the Attorney General filed a final declaration that he would not disclose the classified information. From the  Walsh Iran/Contra Report. In addition, Bush pardoned Edwin Cox Jr., whose family contributed nearly $200,000 to the Bush familys campaigns and to Republican campaign committees from 1980 to 2000, according to documents obtained by  CNN. Cox pleaded guilty to bank fraud in 1988, served six months in prison and paid $250,000 in fines. In addition, his father (Cox, Sr.) is a Bush Presidential Library trustee who contributed between $100,000 and $250,000 to the Bush Presidential Library. A complete  list of Bushs pardons  (1989-1992) President Clintons Pardons President Clintons most controversial pardon was of billionaire financier Marc Rich. His connection with the political and business elite of both parties demonstrates that the differences among those in power are less distinct than the differences between those in power and those out of power. For  example: After hiring prominent Republican lawyers during the Reagan and Bush administrations- Leonard Garment, former Nixon White House counsel, William Bradford Reynolds, once an official of the Reagan Justice Department, and Lewis Libby, now chief of staff to Vice President Richard Cheney- Rich hired a top Democratic lawyer, Jack Quinn, to give him direct access to Clinton. Quinn, former White House counsel, runs his law practice with Ed Gillespie, a key Bush adviser and former head of the GOP. In addition, Clinton pardoned Susan McDougal (Whitewater), former Housing Secretary Henry Cisneros (lied to FBI investigators about payments to his mistress) and  ex-CIA chief  John Deutch (forced out at the CIA when he contradicted White House claims that U.S. missile strikes on Iraq were effective).Review the  list of Clintons pardons  (1993-2000) President Bushs Pardons As the end of President Bushs term drew near, he had pardoned about half as many people as his prior two-term predecessors, Clinton and Ronald Reagan. Bush has issued pardons for many petty crimes committed decades in the past, ranging from possessing marijuana to moonshining. Just before Thanksgiving 2008,  President Bush pardoned 14 and commuted the sentence  of another two. This brought his pardon total to 171 and commutations total to eight. In one of the most high profile cases of his Administration, that of Scooter Libby, President Bush did not grant a pardon. He did, however, commute Libbys sentence. Another high-profile commuted sentences was that of  hip-hop musician John Forte, who was convicted in 2001 on drug smuggling charges. In Texas. Just  before Christmas, Bush pardoned Isaac Toussie who pleaded guilty in 2001 to using false documents to have mortgages insured by the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and in 2002 to mail fraud, admitting that he had persuaded officials in Suffolk County to overpay for land. Bush rescinded the pardon the next day after press reports revealed that his father, Robert Toussie, recently donated $30,800 to Republicans. Bush let  stand a pardon  issued for Alan Maiss, who had contributed $1,500 to the presidents 2004 re-election campaign; he served one year of probation. In 1995, Maiss failed to report a fellow gaming executives alleged ties to organized crime. Bush had  pardoned 19  and provided clemency for one. See a  list of pardons  and  commutations  granted by President George W. Bush.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Journal 16 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Journal 16 - Assignment Example He managed to make plenty of money from handling cases of poor immigrants in New York City. He attracts clients through promises and extorts theme to bits. He believes that earning money brings more pleasure. He adds that making more makes his family happier. He observes that money produces happiness and does not take the time to address his family. Tito regrets his past behavior and treatment to his family. He wishes that he had created more time to measure up to his mistakes. On the contrary, it becomes too late to accomplish all that he wanted to share. He cannot show a decent goodbye to the family. Even though, Tito had plenty of complaints against his wife, he believed that the wife had a critical role within his life in Cuba. She was the main reason that pushed him to make more money as a way of satisfying her. He was aware that this had to be the only way of holding together the relationship. Previously, Tito lived a life of misery and difficulty. His wife came into his life while his business was successful and ran advertisements on mass media. Currently, Tito considers his wife a greedy woman who constantly asks the husband to award her money to expense. The fact that she shares no feeling for her husband, she refuses to divorce him for his riches. He has difficulties relating with Ines and Jaime. Tito’s life is limited within the confines of making profit from everyone. This has strained his relationships with his wife and children. He considers making more money through doctoring birth certificates, forging employment records, thwarting deportation, securing sponsors, generating legitimate green cards and applying for political asylums. These contrasts depict how people perceive of money as a happiness equivalent. The thought of more money amounts to equal amounts of happiness is misguided. Tito’s story shows that money does not have a direct comparison with the amount of happiness derived. Politics displays the characters’ in two